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Top 50 Advanced MySQL Interview Questions

Advanced MySQL Interview Questions with Answers

by Pranisha Rai
TOP 50 Advance Interview Questions

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If you want to get into roles like data analyst or data scientist, then you must master this advanced MySQL interview question to meet the demands of these positions. In this blog, I have compiled the Top 50 Advanced Interview Questions with answers to help you prepare for your upcoming interview.

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Top 50 Advanced MySQL Interview Questions

1. What is the difference between PostgreSQL and MySQL?

PostgreSQL MySQL
PostgreSQL is an object-relational database management system and supports multiple indexes.  Whereas, MySQL is a relational database management system, and it supports B-tree and R-tree indexes.
PostgreSQL supports data types such as numeric, character, date and time, spatial, and JSON. MySQL supports enumerated, network addresses, arrays, ranges, XML, hstore, composite, and MySQL data types.

2. What are the most common functions in MySQL Server?

The most used functions in MySQL servers are String functions, Numeric functions, Date and time functions, Aggregate functions, and Other functions. 

  • String functions consist of CONCAT(), LEFT(), RIGHT() & SUBSTRING() LEN(), LTRIM(), RTRIM() & TRIM(), REPLACE(), LOWER() and UPPER()
  • Numeric functions contain ABS(), and ROUND()
  • Data and time functions consist of DATEDIFF(), CURRENT_TIMESTAMP(), DATEADD(), DAY(), MONTH(), YEAR()
  • Aggregate functions consist of COUNT(), SUM(), AVG(), MIN(), and MAX(). 
  • Lastly, CAST() & CONVERT(), COALESCE(), ISNULL(), and NULLIF() comes under other functions. 

3. Write the MySQL query to find the 5 highest-paid salaries of employees for each department in descending order.

Let’s assume that we have an Employee table with columns emp_id, dept_id, and salary. The following is a query to retrieve the 5 highest-paid salaries for employess in descending order: 

WITH RankedEmployees AS ( 





    ROW_NUMBER() OVER (PARTITION BY department_id ORDER BY salary DESC) AS rank 

  FROM employees 






FROM RankedEmployees 

WHERE rank <= 5 

ORDER BY department_id, rank; 
 Must Read: What is an SQL Database? 

4. Imagine there is a StudentDonationtable that contains fees paid by the students. Write a MySQL query to find out the Nth highest donation paid by the student without using TOP and LIMIT Operator.

SELECT Donation 

FROM StudentDonationTable F1 

WHERE N-1 = ( 

      SELECT COUNT( DISTINCT ( F2.Donation ) ) 

      FROM StudentDonationTable F2 

      WHERE F2.Donation > F1.Donation );

5. What are the three reasons for using Function in MySQL?

  • User-defined functions can help to decompose a large program into small segments. 
  • It makes the program easy to maintain and debug. 
  • By creating functions, we can reuse the code and execute them by calling that function, whenever necessary. 

6. What do ROLLUP, GROUPING SETS, and CUBE Do in T-SQL?​

These functions are expansions of GROUP BY: 

  • ROLLUP: It lets you make multiple grouping sets, adding subtotals and grand totals.  
  • GROUPING SETS: It lets you specify multiple grouping sets, similar to combining multiple GROUP BY clauses, but in a single query.  
  • CUBE: It creates groups for all possible combinations of columns and includes subtotals. 

7. How do we find the total sales for each month of the current year and months with zero sales?

We need to use LEFT JOIN between the Months CTE and the EXTRACT() function and COALESCE function. The following is the SQL query: 

WITH Months AS ( 

  SELECT 1 AS month_number UNION ALL 











  SELECT 12 




  COALESCE(SUM(s.sale_amount), 0) AS total_sales 






      EXTRACT(MONTH FROM sale_date) AS month, 






  ) AS s 


  Months.month_number = s.month 





8. Explain the lock in the MySQL server.

Locks are important to maintain transaction concurrency. Whenever multiple users access the same database simultaneously, SQL Server processes the query, checks for the data resources used, and then applies a lock to safeguard them. The following are the lock modes in SQL Server: 

  • Shared (S) Lock Mode: It is used with the SELECT statement and for read-only data. It prevents making changes in data while executing the query. 
  • Update (U) Lock Mode: It is used to modify the particular data. It prevents deadlocks when the transaction is ready to modify the U convert into the X lock. 
  • Exclusive (X) Lock Mode: It ensures that only one transaction can update the same data at a time and is used with commands like INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE. 
  • Bulk Update (BU) Lock Mode: Imposed when data is copied in bulk, often used with the TABLOCK hint. 
  • Intent (I) Lock Mode: It manages the lock hierarchy and checks how the locks are coordinated at different levels. It signals the intention of the transaction and imposes the lock (S) or (X) on data. By doing so, it prevents conflicts in the transactions. It is of three types of intent intent shared (IS), intent exclusive (IX), and shared with intent exclusive (SIX) locks. 
  • Key-Range Lock Mode: Used in serializable transaction isolation levels to prevent data anomaly, where the same query returns different results each time it runs. 
  • Schema (Sch) Lock Mode: It is used for schema-dependent operations. Schema modification (Sch-M) lock for DDL statements (CREATE, ALTER, DROP). It prevents data access during structure modification, while schema stability (Sch-S) lock allows other locks except Sch-M during schema-dependent transactions. 

9. By dividing by 2, how do we retrieve the even and odd rows from a table?

Let’s assume that we have a student table and to retrieve the even and odd rows in the MySQL server the following is the query. 


    SELECT *, ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY StudentId) AS RowNumber 

    FROM Student 

) P 

WHERE S.RowNumber % 2 = 0; 

Fetch even rows in MySQL 


      SELECT *, @rowNumber := @rowNumber+ 1 rn 

      FROM Student 

      JOIN (SELECT @rowNumber:= 0) r 

     ) p  

WHERE rn % 2 = 0; 

In case you wish to find the odd rows, then the remainder when divided by 2 should be 1 


    SELECT *, ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY StudentId) AS RowNumber 

    FROM Student 

) S 

WHERE S.RowNumber % 2 = 1; 

Fetch odd rows in MySQL 


      SELECT *, @rowNumber := @rowNumber+ 1 rn 

      FROM Student 

      JOIN (SELECT @rowNumber:= 0) r 

     ) s  

WHERE rn % 2 = 1; 

10. Is it possible to perform insert, update, and delete operations from the function in the database?

No, we can not. Functions only have READ-ONLY Database Access therefore, it is not possible to perform insert, update, and delete operations. 

11. How to install MySQL in Linux?

  • First, you need to update the package and install the MySQL APT repository. 
  • Once done, you can install MySQL server and client packages. 
  • While the installation process is going on, it will prompt you to set a password for the MySQL root user. 
  • Use the command line or directly install MySQL Workbench. 
  • Once it is installed, you can use various client tools like the command-line client (MySQL), MySQL Workbench, or any other graphical tools to connect to the MySQL server. 

12. Write the MySQL query to display all customers who have purchased every month for the last eight months.

The following query displays the list of customer_id: 

SELECT customer_id 

FROM purchases 


GROUP BY customer_id 


13. What is the difference between a deadlock and a Livelock?

Deadlock Livelock
It occurs when two or more processes prevent each other from obtaining a lock. It occurs when multiple retries and activities cause processes to continuously adapt each with no such progress.

14. Write the Syntactical Flow of MySQL Query.

  • SELECT: It starts with a list of columns or expressions. 
  • FROM: Logically query starts from the FROM clause by assembling the initial set of data. 
  • WHERE: It acts upon the record set assembled by the FROM clause to filter certain rows based upon conditions. 
  • GROUP BY: It groups the larger data set into smaller data sets based on the columns specified. 
  • HAVING: It is used to restrict the result of aggregation by GROUP BY. 
  • ORDER BY: It determines the sort order of the result set. 
Also Read: JSON vs SQL Overview 

15. Show how to calculate the running total of sales for each day within the past month.

We order the results by sale_date to display the running total for each day within the past month. The following MySQL query retrieves the date and running_total that represent the cumulative sales up to and including each day within the past month: 



  SUM(sale_amount) OVER (ORDER BY sale_date) AS running_total 





  AND sale_date <= CURRENT_DATE 



16. What is the difference between SQL and MySQL?

SQL is the Structured Query Language that uses sets of commands or query create, manage, and manipulate data in the relational database. MySQL is the Relational Management System developed by Oracle Corporation for storing databases. 

17. Write a query using a recursive CTE to fetch all students and their score in a hierarchical structure.

WITH RECURSIVE StudentHierarchy AS ( 

  SELECT std_id, std_name, score_id 

  FROM students 

  WHERE score_id_id IS NULL 


  SELECT s.std_id, s.std_name, s.

  FROM students s 

  JOIN StudentHierarchy sh ON s.score_id = sh.std_id 


SELECT * FROM StudentHierarchy; 

18. Why do we use the ORDER BY clause?

By default, MySQL stores the data in ascending order. Sometimes there is a requirement to generate that data in a descending order. The ORDER BY clause lets us sort the results in ascending order as well as descending order. However, by using the DESC keyword, we can use the ORDER clause to filter the result in the descending order.

19. What is Coalesce() and IsNull()?

  • Coalesce(): Returns the first non-null value passed into the param list. 
  • IsNull(): Returns the specified value if the passed expression is null; otherwise, it returns the expression. 

20. What is the difference between a Function and a Stored Procedure?

Function Stored Procedure
It is routine that compute values and cannot alter database objects. It is a pre-compiled SQL statements that performs a set of actions repeatedly.
It is of two types i.e., built-in and user-defined It uses INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE commands.
It cannot use the transactions and call functions. It can use transactions and call functions.
It works with SELECT, WHERE, and HAVING clauses. It doesn’t need parameters, isn’t obliged to return results, and can modify database objects.
It needs one parameter and yields a result.

21. Why do we use the MySQL window function?

The SQL window function operates independently on each row. It is used for complex calculations and analyses, such as ranking or aggregating data based on specific criteria. 

22. Write the SQL query to show self-referencing the foreign key.


'name' VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL, 

'student_id' CHAR(10) NOT NULL, 

'classteacher_id' CHAR(9) NOT NULL, 

'Marks' decimal(15, 7) NULL, 

PRIMARY KEY ('student_id') 

FOREIGN KEY ('classteacher_id') REFERENCE student(student_id) ON DELETE CASCADE 

23. Show with the help of MySQL query how we use Subquery.

Generally, subquery is nested inside another query to retrieve data, which is used in the main query. The following is the MySQL query:

SELECT name FROM products 

WHERE category_id IN (SELECT id FROM categories WHERE name = 'Automobile'); 

This above subquery (SELECT id FROM categories WHERE name = ‘Automobile’) is used to find the category ID for Automobile, which is then used in the main query to retrieve the names of products that belong to that category. 

24. What is MySQL query to find the Amazon products sold in all cities where it operates?

We need to have three tables i.e., AmazonProd_Table, Sales_Table, and Cities_Table. The following is the MySQL query: 

SELECT p.product_name 

FROM products p 


  SELECT c.city_name 

  FROM cities c 


    SELECT s.product_id 

    FROM sales s 

    WHERE s.product_id = p.product_id 

    AND s.city_id = c.city_id 



25. What is the main difference between a temporary table and a table variable?

Temporary tables are actual tables that handle large volumes of data. It supports operations like SELECT INTO, ALTER TABLE, and TRUNCATE. But it is only accessible within the session in which they are created. We can also create the index in temporary tables. It can be used in transactions and stored procedures but is not applicable to functions. Whereas tables are local variables stored in the temporary It can be used with functions, batches, and stored procedures. Tables are not suitable for handling large volumes of data.

26. Let's say there is a KidHealthCheckup table, and you need to find the minimum and maximum consultation fee from it. How do we write the query?

MySQL query to find the minimum consultation fee: 

SELECT DISTINCT ConsultationFees FROM KidHealthCheckup P1 

 WHERE 2 >= (SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT ConsultationFees)FROM KidHealthCheckup P2 

  WHERE P1.ConsultationFees >= P2.ConsultationFees) ORDER BY P1.ConsultationFees DESC; 

MySQL query to find the minimum consultation fee: 

SELECT DISTINCT ConsultationFees FROM KidHealthCheckup P1 

 WHERE 2 >= (SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT ConsultationFees)FROM KidHealthCheckup P2 

  WHERE P1.ConsultationFees <= P2.ConsultationFees) ORDER BY P1.ConsultationFees DESC 

27. What is SQL?

SQL is a programming language used to manage and analyze data in databases. It’s a language designed specifically for working with relational databases i.e. MySQL to organize, store, and retrieve data. 

28. Which SQL clauses are used in conjunction with a SELECT query?

WHERE, ORDER BY, GROUP BY, and HAVING are the clauses that are often used with SELECT query.  


FROM myDB.students 

WHERE graduation_year = 2024 


here we use WHERE and ORDER BY with SELECT query.

SELECT COUNT(studentId), country 

FROM myDB.students 

WHERE country != "LONDON" 

GROUP BY country 

HAVING COUNT(studentID) > 10; 

here we use GROUP BY and HAVING  with SELECT query.  

29. Explain the difference between the LAG and LEAD Functions using an example.

These two functions are used to fetch the data from the previous row in a specific result set. LAG() is used to retrieve the value of a particular column from the previous and next rows. The LEAD() function, on the other hand, is used to fetch the value from the next row.  The following query is an example to showcase the student’s name and their score from the previous score as well as the next score. The LAG function gets the score from the previous row, and the LEAD function retrieves the score from the next row. One thing common between these functions is that the scores are ordered in descending order using the DESC keyword. 

SELECT name, score, 

LAG(score) OVER (ORDER BY score DESC) AS previous_score, 

LEAD(score) OVER (ORDER BY score DESC) AS next_score 

FROM students 

30. What is the difference between clustered indexes and non-clustered indexes?

Clustered Indexes Non-Clustered Indexes
It is integral to the table structure that determines the physical order of storage and sorting based on the index key value. It contain key values, each with a pointer to the data row holding that key value.
When searching for data, the query scans the table row by row until it locates the specified index. Nonclustered indexes are organized and stored separately from the indexed tables.
Each table can have only one clustered index. It directly access the data row with the specified index without traversing all the data.

31. Write a MySQL query to find the list of 30 customers who have spent most of their earnings on a single purchase?

For this, we need to use the MAX() aggregate function and the LIMIT clause to restrict the output value to only 30.



  MAX(purchase_amount) AS max_purchase_amount 






  max_purchase_amount DESC 

LIMIT 30; 

32. When do use Tigger in MySQL?

Trigger is a stored procedure that automatically executes when a defined event occurs. Whenever users try to modify table data through INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE operations. DDL triggers run in response to CREATE, ALTER, or DROP statements. When a user makes a connection to the MySQL server a logon trigger gets activated. For instance, a user might use a DML trigger on a Student Table containing information about their marks. But if someone modifies the student marks, then the trigger could store modified data. 

33. What is the MySQL query to find the employees who manage the same number of employees as their manager?

In this scenario, we use the inner join between the employee’s table and the subquery. The following query will display the list of employees: 

SELECT e1.employee_id, e1.manager_id 

FROM employees e1 


  SELECT manager_id, COUNT(*) AS managed_count 

  FROM employees 

  GROUP BY manager_id 

) e2 ON e1.employee_id = e2.manager_id AND e1.manager_id IS NOT NULL 

WHERE e1.manager_id IS NOT NULL AND e1.employee_id != e2.manager_id  

AND e1.employee_id = e2.managed_count;
Read More: What is PostgresSQL? 

34. How do we identify the name of the process that blocks the database resource?

We use Activity Monitor to view information about the current processes and locks held on SQL Server resources. 

Use stored procedures like sp_who2 

Use DMVs like: sys.dm_exec_requests/sys.dm_tran_locks/sys.dm_os_waiting_tasks 

35. What is the difference between Commit and Rollback?

Commit Rollback
It stores the modified data permanently during a transaction. It lets users undo all changes that occurred since the last commit of transaction modifications.

36. Write a MySQL query so that we get the output the following way.

  1. Leaf 
  2. Inner 
  3. Inner 
  4. Leaf 
  5. Root

The following is the MySQL query:

WITH join_table AS 


        COUNT(next.node) AS num_children
        tree cur
        tree next ON (next.parent = cur.node) 


        WHEN parent IS NULL THEN "Root" 
        WHEN num_children = 0 THEN "Leaf" 

        ELSE "Inner" 

    END AS label 





        WHEN parent IS NULL THEN 'Root'
        WHEN node NOT IN (SELECT parent FROM tree) THEN 'Leaf'
        WHEN node IN (SELECT parent FROM tree) AND parent IS NOT NULL THEN 'Inner' 

    END AS label  



37. What are the benefits of using stored procedures?

A stored procedure can be stored and called multiple times whenever required. Therefore, it promotes faster execution and there is no need to write multiple queries. It also helps to reduce network traffic. rather than writing every single line of code, a to execute the procedure is sent over a network. 

38. Which MySQL query do we use to calculate each product's 30-day moving average of sales?

We use the Windows function and AVG() function, the following is the MySQL query: 





  AVG(sale_amount) OVER ( 

    PARTITION BY product_id 

    ORDER BY sale_date 


  ) AS moving_avg 




  product_id, sale_date; 

39. Show the MySQL query to find out all the average salaries that is higher than the company’s overall average salary along with the departments.

SELECT department 

FROM employees 

GROUP BY department 

HAVING AVG(salary) > ( 

  SELECT AVG(salary) 

  FROM employees 


40. What are the different types of replication servers?

Transactional replication is a real-time replication from the main database to another database. 

  • Merge replication is like transactional replication, but changes occur in both publisher and subscriber changes. 
  • Snapshot replication takes out the exact state of the main database for a specific moment and replicates it to another database. 
  • Peer-to-peer replication is a variation of transaction replication that supports replication across multiple servers. 
  • Bidirectional transactional replication replicates data between servers that publish and subscribe to each other’s data. 
  • Updatable subscription replication passes the subscriber database changes first to the main database copy before replicating to other subscribers. 

41. What is the MySQL query to copy all the columns into a new table?

We use the SELECT INTO statement and the WHERE condition. The following is the query to copy all the columns into a new table: 

SELECT *    

INTO newtable 

FROM oldtable 

WHERE condition 

42. What are the Magic Tables in MySQL?

Magic Tables are either invisible tables or virtual tables. We can only see it with the help of Triggers. It lets users hold insert, delete, and updated values during insert, delete, and update.

43. What is the difference between materialized views and non-materialized views?

Materialized Views Non-Materialized Views
It is a logical representation of data that stores the output in a table. It is a logical representation of data, but it doesn’t store the output in a table.
It improves the performance, but it needs to be refreshed to keep the information up to date. It does not let execute the view whenever results are used.

44. List some drawbacks of MySQL.

The following are the disadvantages of using MySQL: 

  • MySQL is inefficient for extremely large-scale databases, 
  • Sometimes transactions are not processed effectively. 
  • MySQL version below 5.0 does not support the COMMIT and STORED PROCEDURES. 
  • Most of its functionality relies on third-party extensions. 

45. Let's consider that you have an Employee table that only accepts the values that are greater than 0. Write a MySQL query for this.

For this, we need to use the CHECK constraint while creating the column in the table. 

CREATE Table Employee( 

id int, 

Age int CHECK (Age>0) 


46. Why do we use a SQL subquery? Write its syntax.

Subquery is the nested nested inside another SQL query. It is used to retrieve data, which is used in the main query. The following is the syntax of the subquery nested inside the WHERE clause of the main query. The subquery retrieves data from the table based on a specific condition, and this data is used as a filter for the main query. 





  column_name operator 





    WHERE condition); 

47. What Is a Subquery in T-SQL?

A subquery is a query embedded with the outer query. In T-SQL, it can be used in various statements like SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, FROM, WHERE, or HAVING clauses. 

48. What is the difference between Stored Procedure and Function?

Stored Procedure Function
It is used for processing and manipulating data. It groups one or more Transact-SQL statements into a logical unit and is stored as an object in the Database Server.
Supports SELECT and has READ-ONLY Database Access SQL Server creates an execution plan and stores it in the cache when it is called for the first time.
It allows to use of functions like Insert, Update, and Delete (DML operations) records in the database table. SQL Server reuses the plan so that the stored procedure can execute very fast with reliable performance.
It accepts only input parameters and does not have output parameters. It cannot be a part of WHERE, HAVING, and SELECT.
It returns a single value. It does not return anything

49. Write a syntax to create a table in MySQL Server.

By using the CREATE TABLEcommand we can define the table name, column names, and the data type accepted by each column. The syntax to create a table in MySQL server is the following: 

CREATE TABLE table_name ( 

   column_1 datatype, 

   column_2 datatype, 

   column_3 datatype, 


50. What do you mean by MySQL connector maven?

It is a JDBC driver for MySQL that enables Java applications to connect to a MySQL database. If you’re creating an application using Java, then we need the MySQL connector Maven to communicate with the MySQL and Java applications. By using this, it eliminates the manual work like configuration and creating a JAR file in the classpath. Java developers only need to insert MySQL dependency into their project pom.xml file, and for other tasks like downloading and managing the JAR file, Maven will take care of it. The following is the code to specify it in the project:




    <version>8.0.30</version> < Specify the version you need> 

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Mastering MySQL opens many golden opportunities in the data-driven world that we live in today. So, whether you aspire to be a data analyst, data scientist, software engineer, database developer, or SQL developer, this comprehensive advanced MySQL interview question can help you tackle the complex question. If you are an SQL developer, then sign up with Olibr now.

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SQL developer builds, maintains, and manipulates data. They leverage databases to access stored data, crafting both spontaneous and regular reports. Additionally, they’re responsible for coding and validating SQL scripts, as well as designing stored procedures, functions, and views.

An SQL developer needs to be well-versed in using SQL query and need to know other database management systems, such as,  SQL Server, NoSQL, MongoDB, and PostgreSQL. 

Soft skills required for an SQL developer include problem-solving, communication, attention to detail, time management, teamwork, adaptability, critical thinking, customer focus, ethical mindset, and continuous learning.

Qualification requirements for an SQL role typically include a bachelor’s degree in computer science, information technology, or a related field, along with proficiency in SQL programming and database management systems. 

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